Organon F

Volume 31, May 2024, Issue 2, Pages 183–196

ISSN 2585-7150 (online) ISSN 1335-0668 (print)

Research Article

Cognition As a Natural Kind

Selen Fettahoğlu


In corvids and apes, cognition evolved convergently instead of being inherited by a shared ancestor. In biology, natural kinds are classified according to common ancestry. So, if we were to apply the same strategy to psychology, cognition among corvids and apes would not be the same natural kind. However, Cameron Buckner claims that cognition is a natural kind. I suggest that by using Ladyman and Ross’s strategy of taking natural kinds as real patterns, we can support that cognition is a natural kind. Cognition seems to have the properties of predictability and compressibility, which are necessary conditions for real patternhood. Thus, convergent evolution examples of cognition, such as that found in corvids and apes, can be the same natural kind.


Natural kinds; cognition; convergent evolution; real patterns.

Author(s) and affiliation(s)


Selen Fettahoğlu


Ibn Haldun University; Middle East Technical University


Department of Philosophy, Ibn Haldun University, Başak Mah. Ordu Cad. F-05 Blok No:3 P.K. 34480 Başakşehir/İstanbul, Türkiye;
Department of Philosophy, Middle East Technical University, Üniversiteler Mahallesi, Dumlupınar Bulvarı No:1, 06800 Çankaya/Ankara, Türkiye


About this article


30 October 2023


22 May 2024


25 May 2024


Institute of Philosophy of the Slovak Academy of Sciences

Institute of Philosophy of the Czech Academy of Sciences

Cite as


Fettahoğlu, S. (2024). Cognition As a Natural Kind. Organon F31(2), 183–196.


Fettahoğlu, Selen. 2024. "Cognition As a Natural Kind." Organon F 31 (2): 183–196.


Fettahoğlu, S. (2024). Cognition As a Natural Kind. Organon F, 31(2), pp. 183–196.

Copyright information

© Selen Fettahoğlu

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