Organon F

Volume 30, February 2023, Issue 1, Pages 102–126

ISSN 2585-7150 (online) ISSN 1335-0668 (print)

Research Article | Special issue on Times, Events, and Logical Specification

Actions, Products, Demonstrations

Tadeusz Ciecierski


As it is broadly accepted, typical uses of demonstratives are accompanied by demonstrations. The concept of demonstration, however, manifests the action–product ambiguity analogous to that visible in the opposition between jumping and the resulting jump, talking and the resulting talk or crying and the resulting cry. It is also a heterogeneous concept that enables demonstrations to vary significantly. The present paper discusses action–product ambiguity as applied to demonstrations as well as the heterogeneity of the latter. An account that acknowledges ambiguity and heterogeneity of demonstrations is sketched in the paper. It is argued that it has a rich explanatory and descriptive potential.


Demonstratives; demonstrations; demonstrate; action–product distinction; referential intentions.

Author(s) and affiliation(s)


Tadeusz Ciecierski


University of Warsaw


Institute of Philosophy, University of Warsaw, Krakowskie Przedmieście 3, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland


About this article


12 August 2022


1 December 2022


1 January 2023


Institute of Philosophy of the Slovak Academy of Sciences

Institute of Philosophy of the Czech Academy of Sciences

Cite as


Ciecierski, T. (2023). Actions, Products, Demonstrations. Organon F30(1), 102–126.


Ciecierski, Tadeusz. 2023. "Actions, Products, Demonstrations." Organon F 30 (1): 102–126.


Ciecierski, T. (2023). Actions, Products, Demonstrations. Organon F, 30(1), pp. 102–126.

Copyright information

© Tadeusz Ciecierski

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